JAXA Repository / AIREX 未来へ続く、宙(そら)への英知

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Other TitleEffects of gravity on the amphibian life cycle: Morphological and molecular biological analyses of early development, morphogenesis and metamorphosis
Author(jpn)柏木 昭彦; 古野 伸明; 柏木 啓子; 花田 秀樹; 川上 智美; 渡部 稔; 山下 雅道
Author(eng)Kashiwagi, Akihiko; Furuno, Nobuaki; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Hanada, Hideki; Kawakami, Satomi; Watanabe, Minoru; Yamashita, Masamichi
Author Affiliation(jpn)広島大学 大学院理学研究科; 広島大学 大学院理学研究科; 広島大学 大学院理学研究科; 広島大学 大学院理学研究科; 広島大学 大学院理学研究科; 徳島大学 総合科学部 自然システム学科; 宇宙航空研究開発機構 宇宙科学研究本部
Author Affiliation(eng)Hiroshima University Graduate School of Science; Hiroshima University Graduate School of Science; Hiroshima University Graduate School of Science; Hiroshima University Graduate School of Science; Hiroshima University Graduate School of Science; University of Tokushima Dept. of Math. and Natural Sciences, Faculty of Integrated Arts and Sciences; Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency Institute of Space and Astronautical Science
Issue Date2005-03
PublisherInstitute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA/ISAS)
Publication title宇宙利用シンポジウム 第21回 平成16年度
Space Utilization Research: Proceedings of the Twenty-first Space Utilization Symposium
Start page270
End page273
Publication date2005-03
AbstractThis study attempts to investigate abnormal Programmed Cell Death (PCD) and abnormal gene expression induced under high gravity conditions. Uncleaved Xenopus laevis eggs at 10 and 20 min after insemination, and embryos at 2 cell stage were raised at 2 G and 5 G. Controls were raised in normal gravity. PCD for body surface and inner structures of hatched tadpoles was scored using the TUNEL staining method, and gene expression was analyzed by whole-mount in situ hybridization when eggs and embryos reached tail-bud embryos. The results showed that: (1) High gravity retarded the development of eggs and embryos and induced microcephaly and microphthalmia. (2) The number of dying cells in the skin of tadpoles developed from treated eggs and cell 2 stage embryos was greater at 2 G, but less at 5 G, compared to controls. The number of PCD in head epidermis of tadpoles developed from treated eggs and embryos was higher at 2 G than in controls, but the same as controls at 5 G. Brain PCD was found to be the same at 2 G, but higher at 5 G than for controls. (3) High gravity strongly suppressed the expression of the two genes, XAG1 (regulating cement gland formation) and Xotx2 (involved in forebrain and eye development). These findings suggest that high gravity induces abnormal PCD and suppresses gene functions essential for head and brain development, leading to retardation and various morphological abnormalities.
Keywordsamphibian; morphological analysis; high gravity environment; gravitational effect; gene expression; apoptosis; morphogenesis; metamorphosis; hybridization; gravitation; 両生類; 形態学的解析; 高重力環境; 重力効果; 遺伝子発現; アポトーシス; 形態生成; 変態; ハイブリダイゼーション; 重力
Document TypeConference Paper
JAXA Categoryシンポジウム・研究会

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