JAXA Repository / AIREX 未来へ続く、宙(そら)への英知
title酸素の使用に伴う事故の事例について
Other TitleCase Examples of Accidents/Incidents Associated with Use of Oxygen
DOIinfo:doi/10.20637/JAXA-RM-18-002/0001
Author(jpn)小野, 文衛
Author(eng)Ono, Fumiei
Author Affiliation(jpn)宇宙航空研究開発機構研究開発部門第四研究ユニット(JAXA)
Author Affiliation(eng)Research Unit IV, Research and Development Directorate, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)
Issue Date2018-10-11
Publisher宇宙航空研究開発機構(JAXA)
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA)
Publication title宇宙航空研究開発機構研究開発資料
JAXA Research and Development Memorandum
VolumeJAXA-RM-18-002
Start page1
End page99
Publication date2018-10-11
Languagejpn
eng
Abstract酸素システムにおいては, 火災の三要素, すなわち, 燃料, 酸化剤および発火源, のいずれも取り除くことが困難である. このため, 発火の危険性を可能な限り低減または排除するように配慮して酸素システムを設計, 運用する以外に方法が無い. これまでに, 航空宇宙, 潜水, 医療, 産業などの分野において, 酸素が関係する火災や爆発事故が多数発生している. 本資料では, 過去に起きたこれらの事故事例の調査を行った結果について可能な限り紹介した. これらの事故の経験を基にして関係諸法の整備および技術的な調査・研究などが進められ, 酸素システムの安全性の向上が図られてきた経緯がある. 酸素を扱う全ての者は, 酸素の基本的特性に関して教育を受け, 各指示書や作業手順書を逸脱しないことが大切であるが, それらの指示や手順が何故そのようになっているのか, その本質を理解することも安全上重要である. もしも指示書や手順書に規定されていない事態が発生した場合でも, その事象の本質を理解して対処することができれば, 最悪の事態を免れる可能性が高いためである. 本資料では, 米国における航空宇宙分野および一般産業分野で発生した酸素関連の事故事例を中心に紹介し, 併せて欧州と我が国における事例についても示した. 本資料には約540 件の事故事例を示したが, その原因は基本的知識の欠如(教育不良), 手順違反/不良, 設計/製造不良, 材料不適合, 洗浄/確認不良, 汚染, 保守/点検不良, 管理/監督不良などに分類される. これらの事例の中には, 基本的知識の欠如や手順違反/不良によるものが相当数見られた. さらに, 大部分の事故は単独の原因ではなく, 複数の原因が重なって発生している. また, 酸素を安全に取扱うために必要な最低限の事項についても述べ, 関係する文献類については本資料の末尾に示した.
In the oxygen system, it is difficult to remove any of the three elements of fire-fuel, oxidizer, and ignition source. For this reason, an oxygen system must be designed and operated by considering ways to reduce or eliminate the risk of ignition as much as possible. To date, there have been numerous oxygen-related fires and explosions in the aerospace, diving, medical, industrial and other fields. This paper presents the results of surveys on these accident/incident cases that occurred in the past, to the extent possible. Based on the experience gained through these accidents/incidents, improvements in related laws and regulations, technical investigation and research, etc. have been promoted, with the safety of oxygen systems being consequently improved. For everyone who deals with oxygen, it is most important not to deviate from each instruction sheet and work procedure manual, but understanding the essence of why such procedure manuals are like that is also important for safety. Even if a situation arises that is not covered by the instruction sheet or procedure manual, being able to understand the nature of the event and deal with it will likely result in avoiding the worst situation. This paper mainly focuses on the cases of oxygen-related accidents/incidents that occurred in the aerospace field and general industrial field in the United States, but also cites cases in Europe and Japan. The causes of about 540 accidents/incidents reported herein are classified as a lack of basic knowledge (educational failure), procedural violation/defect, design/manufacturing defect, material incompatibility, cleaning/confirmation failure, contamination, maintenance/inspection failure, management/supervision failure, and other failure. A considerable number of these cases is caused by a lack of basic knowledge and instruction/procedural violations. Moreover, most accidents/incidents involve several causes rather than a single cause. This paper also describes the minimum matters necessary for the safe handling of oxygen, with related literature being listed at the end.
Description形態: 図版あり
Physical characteristics: Original contains illustrations
KeywordsOxygen; Liquid oxygen; Gaseous oxygen; Oxygen accident/incident; Oxygen fire; Explosion; Oxygen safety; Material compatibility; Oxygen enriched atmosphere; Combustion supporting gas
Document TypeTechnical Report
JAXA Category研究開発資料
NASA Subject CategorySpace Transportation and Safety
ISSN(online)2433-2224
SHI-NOAA1830005000
Report NoJAXA-RM-18-002
URIhttps://repository.exst.jaxa.jp/dspace/handle/a-is/896421


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.